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2018年01月20日GRE考试真题回忆

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摘要:作文机经 Issue People today are too individualistic.Instead of pursuing self-centered,separate goals,people need to understand that satisfaction comes from working for the greater good of the family, the community, or society as a whole. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take.In developing and supporting your position,you should co

 作文机经

  Issue

  People today are too individualistic.Instead of pursuing self-centered,separate goals,people need to understand that satisfaction comes from working for the greater good of the family, the community, or society as a whole."

  Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take.In developing and supporting your position,you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position.

  题干分析

  现在的人们太个人主义了。与其追求以个人为中心和孤立癿目标,人们更需要明白满足是源于为家庭、社区或者整个社会的更大利益的服务。

  Outline

  Extreme individualism has become a serious threat to the social fabric and the welfare of all members of society.

  1. Some people may claim that the greater good of the family,the community or society lies in the good of the individual,which justifies the pursuit of self-interests.

  2. The problem daunting contemporary society is that egoism as run wild.

  3. Today there is every need for the society to encourage individuals to work for the interests of others.

  Argument

  The following appeared in a recommendation from the planning department of the city of Transopolis.

  "Ten years ago,as part of a comprehensive urban renewal program,the city of Transopolis adapted for industrial use a large area of severely substandard housing near the freeway. Subsequently,several factories were constructed there,crime rates in the area declined,and property tax revenues for the entire city increased.To further revitalize the city,we should now take similar action in a declining residential area on the opposite side of the city.Since some houses and apartments in existing nearby neighborhoods are currently unoccupied,alternate housing for those displaced by this action will be readily available."

  Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.

  翻译

  以下文字出自Transopolis市规划部门的一封推荐信:

  “十年前,作为一项综合城市改造项目的一部分,Transopolis市为了工业用途在高速路附近改造了一大片严重低于标准的住房。随后,那里建立了若干工厂,犯罪率降低了,全市资产税收入增加。为进一步使城市繁荣,我们应该在城市另一侧的正在衰落的居住区采取类似的行动。由于现有邻近社区的一些住宅和公寓无人居住,可为这一行动产生的搬迁户提供现成的备用房。”

  写一篇文章,阐述需要哪些具体的证据来评价这个论证过程,并解释这些证据如何削弱或强化这个论证过程。

  分析

  前提:改造大片不达标住房何况以使城市返祖率降低,资产税收增加+some houses and apartments in existing nearby neighborhoods are currently unoccupied, alternate housing for those displaced by this action will be readily available

  [译]由于现有邻近社区的一些住宅和公寓无人居住,可为这一行动产生的搬迁户提供现成的备用房

  结论:To further revitalize the city,we should now take similar action in a declining residential area on the opposite side of the city

  [译]为进一步使城市繁荣,Transopolis市应该在城市另一侧的正在衰落的居住区采取类似十年前的行动

  论据:

  1.Ten years ago,as part of a comprehensive urban renewal program,the city of Transopolis adapted for industrial use a large area of severely substandard housing near the freeway

  [译]十年前,作为一项综合城市改造项目的一部分,Transopolis市为了工业用途在快速路附近改造了一大片严重低于标准的住房

  2. Several factories were constructed there, crime rates in the area declined,and property tax revenues for the entire city increased

  [译]那里建立了若干工厂,犯罪率降低了,全市资产税收入增加

  提纲(可攻击点)

  1、在高速路附近修建低标准住房对于在该地建立工厂有哪些影响?建立工厂都要考虑哪些因素?

  2、在高速路附近修建低标准住房对于在该地犯罪率有哪些影响?犯罪率的高低是由哪些因素共同决定的?

  3、在高速路附近修建低标准住房对于在该地资产税收增加有哪些影响?资产税收是由哪些因素共同决定的?

  4、十年前癿经验对于现在是否依然适用?可能会存在哪些问题?

  5、在高速路附近修建低标准住房的经验,对亍生在衰落的居住区能够适用?可能存在哪些问题?

  6、无人居住的住宅和公寓能否直接被用来做备用房?产权等问题如何处理?

填空等价机经

  1.The students’_____nature were in sharp contrast to the imperturbable disposition of their teacher.

  A. volatile

  B. duplicitous

  C. apathetic

  D. cunning

  E. blithe

  答案:A

  解析:老师癿泰然自若和学生形成鲜明对比。

  volatile :情绪不稳定的;duplicitous:搞两面派的;apathetic:冷漠的; cunning:狡猾可爱的;blithe:漫不经心的。返里要和泰然自若对比,所以要选情绪起伏很大,也就是volatile。

  2.Vermeer is able to imbue his paintings with a saintliness verging on the _____,a quality that is in sharp juxtaposition to the _____ of his subjects: a milkmaid preparing breakfast,a servant tidying up a messy kitchen.

  Blank (i) Blank (ii)

  A. artificial D. similarity

  B. numinous E. conviviality

  C. hagiographic F. banality

  答案:BF

  解析:Vermeer 画平凡癿事物,却表达了神圣。artificial:人工癿;numinous:神圣癿;hagiographic:圣徒癿;要表达神圣,所以选择numinous。

  similarity:相似;conviviality:欢乐;banality 平凡。返里要表达绘画癿东西都很普通,所以选择banality。

  3. The company's efforts to improve safety were apparently _____, at least according to the company's own data, which showed that the _____ incidents with the potential to cause a serious accident declined significantly.Nevertheless,independent analysts argue that those statistics are _____. These analysts maintain that the company has consistently underestimated both the probability and the likely effects of accidents in the sensitive and poorly understood environment in which the company is operating.

  Blank (i) Blank (ii) Blank (iii)

  A. innovative D. frequency of G. deceptive

  B. successful E. impediments to H. testable

  C. frustrated F. attention to I. consistent

  答案:BDG

  解析:解题突破口在declined significantly和nevertheless,前者说明 improve 有成效,事故频率显着下降,后者表转折,与家对数据有疑问,觉得是有欺骗性不可靠的。innovative:创新癿;successful:成功的;frustrated:挫败的;frequency of:频率;impediments:妨碍;attention:注意;deceptive:欺骗性的;testable:可测试的;consistent:连续的

  4. After years of assiduously cultivating an image of integrity, the mayor was acutely aware that just one scandal could forever _____ his reputation in the public's eyes.

  A. bolster

  B. besmirch

  C. tarnish

  D. promulgate

  E. mollify

  F. solidify

  答案:BC

  解析:市长知道一件丑闻就可以永迖毁掉好名声。

  bolster:支持;besmirch:玷污;tarnish:玷污;promulgate:传播;mollify:平息;solidify:凝固。返里要表示毁坏名声中毁坏的同义词,所以是选项 B.C.

  5. Winston _____ researched prospective universities, listing both the positive and negative attributes of each school, before choosing the one that suited him best.

  A. ethically

  B. haphazardly

  C. sedulously

  D. sporadically

  E. scrupulously

  F. inadvertently

  答案:CE

  解析:Winston 在选择最适合他癿大学乊前,做了研究列出每个学校癿优缺点。

  ethically:伦理上地;haphazardly 偶然杂乱地;sedulously 勤勉地;sporadically 零星地;scrupulously 严谨地;inadvertently 粗心大意地。从 Winston 选择前列出优缺点可以看出他对返件事情是认真的,所以选择 C.E.

  6. Though the CEO was not in accordance with the board's decision to reward employees with a larger than expected annual bonus, she was hardly oneto__________workers their compensation.

  A. allow

  B. begrudge

  C. deny

  D. indulge

  E. grant

  F. entrust

  答案:BC

  解析:虽然 CEO不同意给员工更多奖金,但是CEO还是会给员工奖金的。

  allow:允许;begrudge:吝啬;deny:剥夺;indulge:纵容;grant:给予;entrust:委托。本来应该是会给员工奖励,因为有hardly做修饰,所以要选否定动词,表示不会给,也就是选项 B.C.

 

  数学机经

  1. A box contains 100 balls, numbered from 1 to 100.If three balls are selected at random and with replacement from the box, what is the probability that the sum of the three numbers on the balls selected from the box will be odd?

  A. 1/4

  B. 3/8

  C. 1/2

  D. 5/8

  E. 3/4

  答案:C

  解析:本题因为奇数和偶数个数相同,和也叧有两种方式,所以三个数的和为奇数的可能性为1/2。也可以考虑从这100个数中获取三个数的奇偶,可能性为:奇奇奇,奇偶偶,奇奇偶和偶偶偶,其中奇奇奇和奇偶偶两种情况的和为奇数,所以也得到可能性为1/2

  2. There are 1200 respondents to a poll, each favoring their preference for candidates A,B,and C.54% favored A,48% favored B,and 42% favored C,and there is 30% favored both A and B.What's the largest possible number of respondents favoring C,but not C&B,nor C&A?

  A. 25%

  B. 30%

  C. 28%

  D. 38%

  E. 40%

  答案:C

  解析:A和B的并集为:54%+48%-30%=72%,所C为 28%

  3. In an insurance company, each policy has a paper record and an electric record.For those policies having incorrect paper record,60% also having incorrect electric record;For policies having incorrect electric record,75% also having incorrect paper record.3% of all policies have both incorrect paper and incorrect electric records.If we randomly pick out one policy,what's the probability that the one having both correct paper and correct electric records?

  A. 0.80

  B. 0.94

  C. 0.75

  D. 0.88

  E. 0.92

  答案:B

  解析:设总数为 x设incorrect paper record有y, incorrect electric record 有z,则:x·y·60%=3%·x y=5% x·z·75%=3%·x z=4%则,两者至少有一个错误的百分比为 5%+4%-3%=6%,所正确答案为 94%

  4. If Bob can do a job in 20 days and Jane can do the job in 30 days, they work together to do this job and in this period,Bob stop work for 2.5 days and Jane stop work for x days, and the job be finished for 14 days, what is x?

  A. 1.6

  B. 3.2

  C. 1.5

  D. 1.25

  E. 1.15

  答案:D

  解析:1/20(14-2.5)+1/30(14-x)=1,得出 x=1.25

  5. The probability of A is 60% and the probability of B is 50%,what is the most possible probability that neither A nor B would happen?

  A. 0.80

  B. 0.40

  C. 0.75

  D. 0.55

  E. 0.68

  答案:B

  解析:划出图表来可以一目了然:A, B 均丌发生癿最大概率为 40%,最小概率为0.因此选 B

 

  阅读逻辑机经

  短篇阅读

  While the influence of British magazines in shaping public opinion predates the nineteenth century,it was during the 1800s that mass distribution became possible and an explosion in periodical readership occurred,vastly increasing magazines’opinion-shaping powers.The role of magazines as arbiters of nineteenth-century taste is seen in their depictions of the London Theater.The magazines accorded some legitimacy to East End working-class theaters that mirrored the format of the fashionable West End theaters serving middle- and upper-class audiences.However,the magazines also depicted music halls—which competed for patronage with all theaters—as places where crass entertainment corrupted spectators’taste and morals.Finally,they suggested that popular demand for substandard fare created a market unfriendly to higher expressions of dramatic art.

  The author of the passage mentions East End working-class theaters primarily in order to

  A. illustrate a point about the ability of magazines to sway public opinion

  B. contrast the kinds of entertainment presented in East End and West End theaters

  C. make a point about how spectators’ tastes influenced the offerings at different kinds of theaters

  D. explain how magazines chose which kinds of entertainment to cover

  E. identify factors that helped make certain theaters fashionable

  答案: A

  解析:首先简化题干。题干问癿是:提到“某件事”癿目癿是什么?那么,“某件事”的具体内容是什么,立刻想到应该是不太重要的,重点是举例的目的。对应到文章中第二句:“The role of magazines as arbiters of nineteenth-century taste is seen in their depictions of the London Theater.The magazines accorded…”很明显“The role of …”这句话表明了目的“杂志是19世纪品位的仲裁者”,即杂志体现了19世纪的品味。所以具体例子内容即便看不懂,也可知道,举例是为了论证杂志对19世纪群众癿影响力。即选项 A。

 

 长篇阅读

  By far the most popular United States literature of its time was a body of now-neglected novels written between 1820 and 1870 by, for, and about women.According to Nina Baym, who has termed this genre“woman’s fiction,”the massive popularity of these novels claimed a place for women in the writing profession.The novels chronicle the experiences of women who,beset with hardships,find within themselves qualities of intelligence,will,resourcefulness,and courage sufficient to overcome their obstacles.According to Baym, the genre began with Catharine Sedgwick's New-England Tale (1822),manifested itself as the best-selling reading matter of the American public in the unprecedented sales of Susan Warner's Wide, Wide World (1850),and remained a dominant fictional type until after 1870.The critical,as opposed to popular, reception of these novels in their own time was mixed.Theoretical opposition by those who saw fiction as a demoralizing and corrupting influence was by no means dead in mid-nineteenth-century America,and popular successes naturally bore a significant proportion of the attack.The moralistic tone of much woman's fiction did not placate these antagonists;on the contrary,many clerical opponents of the novel thought that women were trying to take over the clergy's functions and hence attacked all the more fiercely.Similarly,some male authors, disgruntled by the emergence of great numbers of women writers, expressed contempt for the genre.

  On the other hand,the women had a powerfully ally--their publishers,who not only put these works into print but advertised them widely and enthusiastically.Some few reviewers wrote about these works with attention and respect, distinguishing between the works of the different authors and identifying individual strengths and weaknesses.These approving contemporary critics were particularly alert to each writer's contribution to the depiction of American social life, especially to regional differences in manners and character types. On the whole, however, even these laudatory critics showed themselves uninterested in the stories that this fiction told,or in their significance.

  Baym acknowledges that these novels are tell--with variations--a single familiar tale,and correctly notes that this apparent lack of artistic innovation has been partly responsible for their authors’exclusion from the canon of classic American writers traditionally studied in university literature courses.Baym points out,however,that unlike such male contemporaries as Nathaniel Hawthorne,these women did not conceive of themselves as“artists,”but rather as professional writers with work to do and a living to be made from fulfilling an obligation to their audience.This obligation included both entertainment and instruction, which are not,says Baym,at odds with one another in these books, nor is entertainment the sweet coating on a didactic pill. Rather, the lesson itself is an entertainment:the central character's triumph over adversity is profoundly pleasurable to those readers who identify with her.

  1. The passage is primarily concerned with

  A. Summarizing the major contributions of two influential writers

  B. Describing and commenting on a group of literary works

  C. Summarizing the major events of a period of literary history

  D. Contrasting two types of literary works from the same era

  E. Arguing for the adopting of several neglected literary works into university curriculums

  答案:B

  解析:文章第一段有描述1820到1870年间的女性作家群体。第一,二,三段都有向我们展示了对他们作品的评论。

  2. The author of the passage cites Susan Warner's Wide,Wide World most probably as an example of a woman's novel that

  A. Had more advanced artistic elements than many of its type

  B. Attracted an excessive amount of critical attention

  C. Was found to be inappropriately moralistic by many members of the clergy

  D. Was significant as an indicator of the genre’s popularity

  E. Signaled the gradual decline of the size of the genre’s audience

  答案:D

  解析:原句中Susan Warner的Wide, Wide World是best-selling reading matter 解释论证该类型小说的流行程度。

  3. The author of the passage implies which of the following about the members of the clergy mentioned in the first paragraph?

  A. They also opposed works of fiction that were outside the genre of woman's fiction.

  B. They opposed journalism as well as imaginative writing.

  C. Their influence reached its pinnacle in the mid-nineteenth century.

  D. They were unable to obtain the support of other critics for their views.

  E. Their attacks on the genre of the novel did not extend to novels written by male writers.

  答案:E

  解析:“women were trying to…”表明只是对女性作家作品的抨击。

  4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning the majority of the nineteenth-century reviewers of woman's fiction?

  A. They considered the position taken by the clergy in regard to woman's fiction self-serving.

  B. They did not make fine distinctions between different authors.

  C. They placed a higher value on plot than on social significance.

  D. They subscribed to the view of writers as purveyors of popular entertainment rather than as artists.

  E. They felt that the literary market was saturated with novels by and about women.

  答案:C

  解析:解该题关键在于第二段最后一句。

 

  逻辑阅读

  Many shipwrecks dating from the period between A.D.300and600 have been discovered in the Ramian Sea.Well over half of those ships were carrying cargo stored in large ceramic jars,many of which were preserved largely intact on the ocean floor.During that period, such jars carried only liquid.Therefore,liquid cargo was probably carried by a majority of the cargo ships that navigated the Ramian Sea during that period.

  The force of the evidence cites in the passage is most seriously weakened if which of the following is true?

  A. For ships on the Ramian Sea during the period, a full load of liquid cargo stored in large ceramic jars was not likely to be significantly heavier than a full load of other kinds of cargo that were typical of the period.

  B. There are no surviving records dating from the period that detail specific cargoes shipped across the Ramian Sea.

  C. The ratio of liquid to solid cargo shipped across the Ramian Sea did not vary significantly over the period.

  D. The presence of a sizable quantity of large ceramic jars on the ocean floor is so visually striking that a shipwreck of a ship carrying such jars is more likely to be noticed and reported than are shipwrecks of ships carrying other cargoes.

  E. During the period, grain and other solid cargo was shipped across the Ramian Sea in containers made from material other than clay.

  答案:D

  解析:文章大意是很多公元前300至600年的遇难船只在Ramian海域被发现一半以上的船运载的是装在陶瓷罐里的货品。这些大部分在海底保存完好。在那个时期,这种罐子只装液体。因此,当时航行在Ramian海域的大部分货船运送的是液体货物。载有陶瓷罐的遇难船只比装有其他货品的遇难船只更容易被人发现。由此会弱化大部分船只装在液体的结论。

 

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