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2018年02月02日GRE考试真题回忆

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摘要:作文机经 Issue In any realm of life--whether academic,social,business,or politicalthe only way to succeed is to take a practical,rather than an idealistic,point of view.Pragmatic behavior guarantees survival, whereas idealistic views tend to be superseded by simpler, more immediate options. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take.In

 作文机经

  Issue

  "In any realm of life--whether academic,social,business,or political—the only way to succeed is to take a practical,rather than an idealistic,point of view.Pragmatic behavior guarantees survival, whereas idealistic views tend to be superseded by

  simpler, more immediate options."

  Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take.In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position.

  题干分析

  在仸何生活领域中----无论是学术、社会、商业还是政治----获得成功的唯一道路就是采取现实的而不是理想化的观点。实用的行为确保了生存,反之理想化的观点正在趋于被更简化的和更直接的选择所取代。

  Outline

  Idealism is just as crucial—if not more so—for long-term success in any endeavor,whether it be in academics, business, or political and social reform.

  1. When it comes to academics,although the idealist-student might sacrifice a high overall grade average,the depth of knowledge,academic discipline, and sense of purpose the students gains will serve that student well later in life.

  2. Considering the business world,without a dream or vision—that is,without strong idealist leadership—a firm can easily be cast about in the sea of commerce without clear direction,threatening not only the firm's bottom line but also its very survival.

  3. Finally, when it comes to the political arena,it is idealists—not pragmatists—who sway the masses,incite revolutions, and make political ideology reality.

  Argument

  The following appeared in a memo from the new vice president of Sartorian,a company that manufactures men's clothing.

  "Five years ago,at a time when we had difficulties in obtaining reliable supplies of high quality wool fabric, we discontinued production of our alpaca overcoat.Now that we have a new fabric supplier, we should resume production.This coat should sell very well:since we have not offered an alpaca overcoat for five years and since our major competitor no longer makes an alpaca overcoat,there will be pent-up customer demand. Also, since the price of most types of clothing has increased in each of the past five years, customers should be willing to pay significantly higher prices for alpaca overcoats than they did five years ago,and our company profits will increase."

  Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.

  翻译

  以下文字出自Sartorian公司(生产男士服装)新上任的副总裁的备忘录:

  “五年前,当我们在获取可靠的高质量羊毛毛料的供货渠道方面存在困难的时候,我们停止了羊毛外衣的生产。现在,我们有了新的毛料供应商,我们应该重新开始生产。这种外衣应该会卖得很好:因为我们已经五年没有供应羊毛外衣了,而且由于我们的主要竞争对手已不再生产羊毛外衣,消费者将有很迫切的需求。而且,由于过去五年中多数种类的服装价格每年都在上涨,消费者应该愿意花比五年前高的多的价格贩买羊毛外衣,从而我们公司的利润将会上升。”

  写一篇文章,阐述需要哪些具体的证据来评价这个论证过程,并解释这些证据如何削弱或强化这个论证过程。

  分析

  前提:our company profits will increase 我们公司的利润将会上升

  结论:we should resume production 我们应该重新开始生产

  论据:

  1. five years ago,at a time when we had difficulties in obtaining reliable supplies of high-quality wool fabric,we discontinued production of our deluxe alpaca overcoats

  [译]五年前,当我们在获叏可靠的高质量羊毛毛料的渠道方面存在困难的时候,我们停止了羊毛外衣的生产

  2. now that we have a new fabric supplier

  [译]现在有了新的毛料供应商

  3. we have not offered an alpaca overcoat for five years and since our major competitor no longer makes an alpaca overcoat,there will be pent-up customer demand

  [译]我们已经五年没有供应羊毛外衣了,而且由于我们的主要竞争对手已丌再生产羊毛外衣,消费者将有很迫切的需求

  4. this coat should sell very well

  [译]这种外衣应该卖得很好

  5. since the price of most types of clothing has increased in each of the past five years,customers should be willing to pay significantly higher prices for alpaca overcoats than they did five years ago

  [译]由于过去五年中多数种类的服装价格每年都在上涨,消费者应该愿意花比五年前高的多的价格贩买羊毛外衣

  提纲(可攻击点)

  1、除了毛料供应问题,还有哪些其他因素(比如,市场需求、竞争、客户支付能力等)对生产销售情况有影响?

  2、仅根据 Sartorian 公司的主要竞争对手不再生产能否判断消费者对羊毛外衣有很迫切的需求?都有哪些因素(比如:羊毛外衣的销量不佳、羊毛外衣的利润太少等)会导致其竞争对手停止生产?

  3、现在的服装市场和五年前相比,变化是否明显?顾客是否愿意付比五年前高的价格来购买羊毛外衣?

  4、即使消费者对羊毛外衣有迫切需求,并且羊毛外衣的价格也很高,重新生产羊毛外衣公司的利润就一定能提高吗?公司的利润与哪些因素(比如:成本、价格、销售量,等)有关?

 

  填空等价机经

  1. Gladys took a ____ approach to problem solving, so when the committee needed ideas on how to create more low-cost public transportation, she suggested they study what worked well in other cities with similar needs.

  A. Benign

  B. Pragmatic

  C. Compliant

  D. Rarefied

  E. Dogmatic

  答案:B

  解析:此题关键是她建议他们研究其他同类城市。说明她采取的方法是比较务实的。

  2. Researchers in University of Maryland discover that many people subconsciously think that in assessment of others competence and warmth are (i) ____: when they feel someone is highly capable, they will assert that he or she must have a tendency to be (ii) ____.

  Blank (i) Blank (ii)

  A. clearly interconnected D. passive

  B. inversely related E. nonchalant

  C. physically paralyzed F. unfeeling

  答案:BE

  解析:题目是说研究人员发现许多人潜意识认为评估他人时,能力和热心程度是(i)______,当他们认为一些人是很有能力的,他们断言这些人可能会(ii)______。可以看出 i 为 B,ii 为 E,答案符合逻辑。A 显然是相互联系的 B.成反比 C.肢体瘫痪 D.消极的 E.漠丌关心的 F.没有同情心的

  3. His new role gives the normally clownish actor a chance to impress audiences with his (i)___.He is among the most uninhibited comic performers around,but here he buttons his lip and stares straight ahead. Perhaps without quite knowing it,

  the audience waits for a wink,a hint that some of the (ii) ___ spirit that animated his previous movies might be lurking inside the (iii) ___ manner he presents in this film.

  Blank (i)                   Blank (ii)                      Blank (iii)

  A. Raillery                 D. Madcap                   G. Facetious

  B. Effusiveness          E. Lugubrious               H. Reserved

  C. Forbearance           F. Edifying                   I. Beguiling

  答案:CDH

  解析:这个小丑演员的新角色给了他一次向观众展示他自制节制的一面。他的喜剧表演最为大胆豪放,而这次他紧闭双唇,直视前方。不知情的观众也许还在等待一个眨眼,一点提示,以为类似他以前电影中的喜剧桥段可能潜伏在他现在这个节制缄默的角色之下.

  4. Although his original mission was a failure, Russian botanist Michael Friedrich Adams achieved an unexpected ____ when he found, by chance, the carcass of a woolly mammoth.

  A. conclusion

  B. upheaval

  C. triumph

  D. bombshell

  E. success

  F. venture

  答案:CE

  解析:此题关键在于前半句的 although…failure, 和 unexpected. 说明后面是成功。

  5. Although most land snails are ____, the giant African snail is a notable exception;it can be 15 inches long and weigh 2 pounds.

  A. gargantuan

  B. juvenile

  C. functional

  D. diminutive

  E. responsive

  F. minuscule

  答案:D F

  解析:从句型来看,空格处该填的词是后半句意思的反义词。即 giant 的反义词。

  6. While it is always clear that the author's message is heartfelt, it is mostly buried by shortcomings of style,organization, and production,although the book does become more ____ toward the end.

  A. Sincere

  B. intelligible

  C. orthodox

  D. readable

  E. frank

  F. voluble

  答案:B D

  解析:

  虽然我们感受到了作者传达的信息,但是大部分被类型,结构和制作的缺陷掩盖了,不过书的结尾的确变得更加易懂。

  数学机经

  1. If k is an integer and 121 < k^2 < 225,then k can have at most how many

  values?

  A. 3

  B. 4

  C. 5

  D. 6

  E. 7

  答案:D.

  解析:k 可以是 12,13,14,-12,-13,-14.

  2. Runner A ran 4/5 kilometer and Runner B ran 800 meters.

  Quantity A: The distance that A ran

  Quantity B: The distance that B ran

  A. Quantity A is greater.

  B. Quantity B is greater.

  C. The two quantities are equal.

  D. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  答案:C

  解析:Quantity A=(4/5)*1000=800=Quantity B。

  3. x < y < z,

  Quantity A: (x + y + z)/3

  Quantity B: y

  A. Quantity A is greater.

  B. Quantity B is greater.

  C. The two quantities are equal.

  D. The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

  答案:D

  解析:已知条件太少,AB 大小都可以根据丌同数据列出可能答案,因此无法判断准确唯一解,选 D。

  4. A reading list for a humanities course consists of 10 books,of which 4 are biographies and the rest are novels.Each student is required to read a selection of 4 books from the list,including 2 or more biographies.How many selections of 4 books satisfy the requirements?

  A. 90

  B. 115

  C. 130

  D. 144

  E. 195

  答案:D

  解析:10本书中,4本biographies,6本novel。现在biographies要选2本以上。

  思路 1:正面解法

  所以可能情形有bio选2本(配nov选2)+bio选3本(配nov选1本)+bio选4本(配nov选0本)。即(C4取2乘C6取2)+(C4取3乘C6取1)+(C4取4乘C6取0)=115

  思路 2:反向解法

  用全部扣除bio选0本(配nov选4)再扣bio选1本(配nov选3)利用 C10取 4-C4取0*C6取4-C4取1*C6取3=210-15-80=115

  5. In a graduating class of 236 students,142took algebra and 121took chemistry.What is the greatest possible number of students that could have taken both algebra and chemistry?

  答案:121

  解析:可能不少人会用142+121-236=27的思路来解题,但问题是least possible number,同时也没有表明只能选两门课,因此有可能还有其他课可选,因此正确答案是眼前两个交集的最大数,也就是142和121取最小数,121个学chemistry的都选了algebra。所以为121。

阅读逻辑机经

  短篇阅读

  Biologists have long debated about whether egg production in birds is biologically highly costly,some theorizing that egg production is energetically or nutritionally demanding.Lack,however,suggested that clutch size--the number of eggs a bird lays per breeding cycle-- is far below the potential limit of egg production.He suggested that clutch size had instead evolved in relation to the number of young that the parents could successfully rear.Subsequently,most studies focused on limitations operating during chick rearing, particularly among altricial species(species in which the parents feed their young in the nest).Lack later recognized that in precocial species (species in which young feed themselves),clutch size might be explained by different factors -- the availability of food for egg-laying females, for example.

  1. The passage suggests that biologists who say egg production in birds is biologically highly costly would agree that clutch size is determined primarily by

  A. The nutritional and energy demands of egg production.

  B. The number of young that the parents can rear successfully.

  C. Reproductive limitations operating during chick rearing.

  D. The availability of food for newly hatched chicks.

  E. The differences between altricial and precocial species.

  参考答案:A. 参考第一句话。

  2. Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.The passage suggests that Lack would agree with which of the following statements about factors affecting clutch size in birds?

  A. In altricial species,clutch size is determined primarily by factors operating after eggs are laid.

  B. In precocial species,clutch size is determined primarily by factors operating after eggs are laid.

  C. In many bird species,clutch size generally remains well below the potential limit of egg production.

  参考答案: A C.

  参考第二句话,不选项 C 对应。第四句不 A 对应。

  长篇阅读

  In 1995 the Galileo spacecraft captured data about Jupiter's atmosphere--namely,the absence of most of the predicted atmospheric water--that challenged prevailing theories about Jupiter's structure.The unexpectedness of this finding fits a larger pattern in which theories about planetary composition and dynamics have failed to predict the realities discovered through space exploration.Instead of"normal planets" whose composition could be predicted by theory,the planets populating our solar system are unique individuals whose chemical and tectonic identities were created through numerous contingent events. One implication of this is that although the universe undoubtedly holds other planetary systems,the duplication of the sequence that produced our solar system and the development of life on Earth is highly unlikely.

  Recently planetary scientists have suggested that the external preconditions for the development of Earth's biosphere probably included four paramount contingencies.

  First,a climate conducive to life on Earth depends upon the extraordinarily narrow orbital parameters that define a continuously habitable zone where water can exist in a liquid state.If Earth's orbit were only 5 percent smaller than it is, temperatures during the early stages of Earth's history would have been high enough to vaporize the oceans.If the Earth-Sun distance were as little as 1 percent larger, run away glaciations on Earth about 2 billion years ago would have caused the oceans to freeze and remain frozen to this day.

  Second, Jupiter's enormous mass prevents most Sun-bound comets from penetrating the inner solar system. It has been estimated that without this shield,Earth would have experienced bombardment by comet-sized impactors a thousand times more frequently than has actually been recorded during geological time.

  Even if Earth's surface were not actually sterilized by this bombardment,it is unlikely that any but the most primitive life-forms could have survived.This suggests that only planetary systems containing both terrestrial planets like Earth and gas giants like Jupiter might be capable of sustaining complex life-forms.

  Third,the gravitational shield of the giant outer planets,while highly efficient,must occasionally fail to protect Earth. Paradoxically, while the temperatures required for liquid water exist only in the inner solar system, the key building blocks of life,including water itself, occur primarily beyond the asteroid belt.Thus the evolution of life has depended on a frequency of cometary impacts sufficient to convey water,as well as carbon and nitrogen, from these distant regions of the solar system to Earth while stopping short of an impact magnitude that would destroy the atmosphere and oceans.

  Finally,Earth's unique and massive satellite, the Moon, plays a crucial role in stabilizing the obliquity of Earth's rotational axis.This obliquity creates the terrestrial seasonality so important to the evolution and diversity of life.Mars,in contrast, has wildly oscillating tilt and chaotic seasonality, while Venus, rotating slowly backward, has virtually no seasonality at all.

  1. The passage is primarily concerned with

  A. Enumerating conditions that may have been necessary for a particular development

  B. Outlining the conditions under which scientists may be able to predict certain events

  C. Explaining how a particular finding affected scientists ' understanding of a phenomenon

  D. Suggesting reasons why a particular outcome was more likely to occur than other possible outcomes

  E. Assessing the relative significance of factors that contributed to a particular occurrence

  答案:C

  解析:

  根据文章第一段内容,可知推出了一个 finding,后面都是具体介绍这个发现的,所以围绕的中心是 C。

  2. It can be inferred from the passage that the "planetary scientists" would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements concerning the development of complex life forms on Earth?

  A. It might have occurred earlier in Earth's history if cometary impacts had been less frequent than they were.

  B. It could have occurred if Earth's orbit were 1 percent larger than it is but not if Earth's orbit were 5 percent smaller.

  C. It probably follows a pattern common on other terrestrial planets that occupy planetary systems containing gas giants.

  D. Its dependence on the effect that Jupiter's gravitational shield has on Earth was difficult to recognize prior to 1995.

  E. It has been contingent on conditions elsewhere in Earth's solar system as well as on conditions on Earth itself.

  答案:E

  解析:

  题干问planetary scientists 最有可能同意哪个观点,而且是与the development of complex life forms on Earth 有关,定位至第二段开头处开始阅读,运用排除法得出答案。

  3. The author of the passage most likely mentions Mars' "oscillating tilt" primarily in order to

  A. Provide evidence for a proposition about the potential effects of cometary impacts

  B. Emphasize the absence from our solar system of "normal planets"

  C. Contrast the rotational axis of Mars with that of Venus

  D. Characterize the role of other planets in the solar system in earth's development

  E. Emphasize the importance of the Moon to the development of life on Earth

  答案:C

  解析:

  题干问为何提及Mars 会震荡倾斜,定位至最后一段会发现后文提及了Venus与Mars是相反的,因此答案选 C。

  逻辑阅读

  Upon maturity, monarch butterflies travel hundreds of miles from their places of origin and lay their eggs on milkweed. The caterpillars that emerge feed on milkweed and absorb the glycosides in milkweed sap. The specific glycosides present in milkweed differ from region to region within the monarch butterfly’s range. Mature butterflies retain the glycosides in a mature monarch butterfly could be used to determine its place of origin.

  Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

  A. Mature monarch butterflies do not feed on parts of milkweed that contain glycosides.

  B. The glycosides in milkweed sap are slightly toxic to caterpillars of other species.

  C. The vast majority of the monarch butterflies that are laying eggs in a given region will have traveled there from a single region.

  D. There are substances other than glycosides in milkweed sap that accumulate in a monarch caterpillar and are retained in the body of the mature butterfly.

  E. There are certain glycosides that are found in the sap of all milkweeds, no matter where they grow within the monarch butterfly’s range.

  答案:C

  只有 C 选项是加强了上文的论点。A 削弱 B 无关 D 削弱 E 削弱

 

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